The Interrelationship between all of the E’s
All of the Ten E’s are necessary as each represents a unique component in ensuring pedestrian safety and achieving healthy and safety communities. When all of the E’s are included and applied to a community health and  safety concern, engagement and action can be approached from many angles and at different levels. Without broad-based, multi-level approaches, effective community change is unlikely to occur. Sustainability is unlikekly. Pedestrian safety and community health depend on all of us working together to implement solutions which work for everyone in California.

Genuinely engaging the community in the ongoing planning and implementation process is more likely to result in integrated and lasting community change. Involving and engaging community residents ensures that pedestrian safety actions and priorities meet the needs of the community. Healthy communities happen in neighborhoods and schools, the areas residents know best.

Educating and training communities on pedestrian safety best practices can be an important first step in improving pedestrian safety in a given location. Education can be focused in a variety of ways. For example, educating community residents about how to be safe pedestrians is one aspect, but also educating community residents through awareness campaigns and the Eight E’s will provide them with a more holistic picture of pedestrian safety.



The built environment (such as crossings,  roads and sidewalks and land use for housing , jobs and services ) is influential in maintaining and creating safe pedestrian spaces. The physical built environment can be modified to increase pedestrian safety and accessibility. For example, having storefronts near sidewalks and parking behind buildings as well as having buffers of parked cars or foliage between sidewalks and traffic flow can help promote friendly pedestrian environments.

Engineering is a primary factor that helps shape the built environment. Engineering can offer solutions for greater pedestrian safety. Engineering solutions can include marking crosswalks, traffic calming, pedestrian bulb-outs and refuges, among many others.

Encouraging residents and community members to walk more can have a snowball effect. By encouraging walking you cannot only increase the number of actual pedestrians using the streets (which can contribute to pedestrian safety) but you can also increase physical activity through the act of walking, creating healthier and more active residents.

Data evaluation can be used to identify areas where existing conditions have particularly high rates of pedestrian collisions. Data can also be used to substantiate the effectiveness of an intervention or program. Evaluating pedestrian safety before and after pedestrian safety measures (such as the installation of a new pedestrian crossing signal) is useful in future implementation of similar measures.

Law enforcement is a key strategy to maintaining pedestrian safety. The enforcement strategy largely involves local law enforcement agencies working to ensure that safety is maintained. Strategies can include ticketing for failure to yield to pedestrians and increased fines in identified areas.

Emergency Response
Emergency response is critical the safety of pedestrians in the event of a pedestrian collision. Emergency response occurs in reaction to a collision event and the quicker and more skilled the responders are in dealing with pedestrian collisions, the better the outcome of the victims involved.